Life Cycle Sustainability of Lake Toba Tourism in Indonesia


In 2011, Halog and Manik proposed an advanced framework of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment through the combination of the Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing, and Social Life Cycle Assessment, incorporated with multi stakeholders’ analysis and capitalized the benefits of using agent-based modeling and system dynamics. The proposed framework has been implemented in Indonesia in two emerging policy sectors: (i) Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB), and (ii) Lake Toba Tourism (LTT). Through a meta-analytic review of LCA studies on various aspects of the POB supply chain, it reveals that the palm oil industry has been associated with several alarming environmental issues such as GHG emissions due to the deforestation of tropical rainforests, soil erosion, eutrophication issue due to the use of fertilizer and pesticides during cultivation, and water pollution by the palm oil mill effluent (POME). Dealing with the notion of sustainability, systems are confronted with complexities that cannot be addressed with environmental LCA alone. To complete the triple pillars, a Societal Life Cycle Assessment has been conducted to answer the question “What are the social impacts of a POB value chain?” The SLCA result indicates land conflict during land conversion to plantation stage potential is one of the identified social hotspot. In economic side, we tried to find the answer to the question “How efficient is POB from ecological economics perspective?” Therefore, not only must the indicators include the net present value (NPV) and valuation of externalities, they also have to account the energy return of energy invested (EROI). Being fully aware of the complexity of the problem with the nonlinearity and the dynamic features of the problem in POB life cycles, it is appropriate to incorporate the agent-based model (ABM) in the LCSA. A simulation model called EXPOSE-ABM (Expansion of Palm Oil Sustainability Evaluation in Agent Based Model) has been created and employed to evaluate different policy scenario. Regarding LTT, in 2015 the Government of Indonesia (GoI) has announced its plan to include Lake Toba region as one out of 10 top priorities of tourist destinations. Successful implementation of the strategy will require multilevel partnership, collaboration, and coordination among the public and private sectors, civil society, and affected community. In order to identify sustainable pathways for developing tourism-based development in Lake Toba region, the same LCSA framework is underway under joint collaboration research between Institut Teknologi Del and University of Queensland.


Dr. Yosef Barita Sar Manik, S.T., M.Sc

Position: Dean of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, Dell Institute of Technology



Educational background :

BEng - Surabaya Institute of Technology (1998)

MSc - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany (2008)

PhD - University of Maine, USA (2013)

Postdoctoral: Harvard University, USA (2014)


A. International Journal

Halog and Manik (2011) Integrated systems modeling modeling for sustainability assessment life cycle, Sustainability 3 (2), 469-499

Manik, Leahy, and Halog (2013) Social life cycle assessment of palm oil biodiesel: a case study in Jambi Province of Indonesia, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 18 (7), 1386-1392

Manik and Halog (2013) A meta-analytic review of life cycle assessment and flow analyzing studies of palm oil biodiesel, Integrated environmental assessment and management 9 (1), 134-141

Manik and Halog (2016) Value Chain Analysis of Palm Oil Biodiesel through a Hybrid (ISO-Eco) Life Cycle Assessment Approach, KnE Engineering 1 (1)

Manik (2017) Evaluating scenarios in coupling growth and resource use for palm oil biodiesel policy in Indonesia, Green Energy and Applications (ICGEA), International Conference on, 134-137

Manik (2017) Developing Energy Technology Course In Lake Toba Area Undergraduate Engineering Management Program Study With Particular Focus To Sustainable Energy Systems in Development Context.


B. Book

Life Cycle Sustainability Assessments (2017), the Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry chapter book, John Wiley & Sons (ISBN: 9781118751466)

Fun with Compass and Ruler (2017), Del Publishing ISBN: 9786027497306

Production System Laboratory: Manuals and Modules (2016) Del Publishing ISBN: 9786027497313


Room 320, Steele Building (#03)